Basic Components of Computer Hardware

Basic Components of Computer Hardware

Basic Components of Computer Hardware

Today we are presenting you a short note on Basic Components of Computer Hardware. You can expect 2-3 questions in your upcoming exams. Hardware represents the physical and tangible components of the computer. Computer hardware consists of the following components:

  • Input Devices
  • Processing Devices
  • Output Devices
  • Storage Devices
Input Devices Processing Devices Output Devices Storage Devices
KeyboardMother boardMonitorMagnetic Disk
MicrophoneProcessorPrinterOptical Disk
MouseRAMSpeakerFlash Memory
Web cameraROMPlotterMagnetic Tape
Touch ScreenSMPSVDU
Light Pen
MICR, OMR, OCR, Track Ball

System Clock & Clock Speed

System Clock

The system clock is an electronic chip that switches between zero and one at rates exceeding several million times per second. Several chips in the motherboard such as the processor and the main memory use the system clock as a reference to perform their functions.

Clock Speed

The clock frequency is simply the number of clock cycles which occur each second. Clock Speeds are usually determined in MHz, 1 MHz representing 1 million cycles per second, or in GHz, 1 GHz representing 1 thousand million cycles per second.


A motherboard is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in computer and other expandable systems. It holds and allows communication between many of the crucial electronic components of a system, such as the central processing unit (CPU) and memory, and provides connectors for other peripherals.


A bus is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers.

The term Bus is very general in nature. It can used to refer to interface cards used to connect a computer with a monitor, a mouse to a computer, computer memory with a processor, etc.

The most common use of Bus in computers is for the term USB Cable or USB Connector.

USB is an acronym for Universal Serial Bus. It is used to connect mobile phones for charging, connecting a mouse to a computer, a camera to a computer.

Indian Organizations/Institutions in Computer Related Technologies

C-DAC: Center for Development of Advanced Computing
C-DOT: Center for Developments of Telematics
IIIT: Indian Institute of Information Technology
NASSCOM: National Association of Software and Services Companies

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